Companionship – Why Humans Form Relationships with Animals: Part 2

Companionship for many social animals is essential. It does not matter whether you are a human, dog, horse, chicken, rabbit, or monkey – you depend on others for your survival.  However, each individual has unique physical and behavioural characteristics, needs and wants. When sharing and supporting others, the social individual benefits too through opportunities to satisfy their own desires. 

Loved guinea pigs

Cavies relaxed on owner’s lap

Companions preferably consist of members of their own species, or those that are closely related, sharing similar physiological characteristics, habitat and food requirements. For humans, the Neolithic period marked a significant change in our development. We developed relationships with other species that have endured to the present day.  Some relationships benefitted our companion animals too. For others such a relationship was and remains questionable.  Many animals are deprived of their “rights”: they are not free, or able to fulfil their innate desires, wants or needs, either when they choose or not at all. 

Humans and Animals – Relationships

We keep huge numbers of animals as food sources, for work, or entertainment purposes.

Shire horse

Companion equine

Many animals are kept as pets, particularly species which were domesticated centuries ago.

It is believed from archaeological records that the first species to be domesticated and eventually share homes and lives with humans was Canid – the ancestor of the dog. Some tribes eventually discovered that wild horses could be caught, tamed, and used not only for food, but for transport too. Archaeological records pinpoint this on the Great Eurasian Steppe to around 5,000 years ago.  Eventually the relationship with humans evolved into one of companionship too.

Over time humans have tamed and made pets of many different animals, selectively breeding them for desired physical characteristics and behavioural traits, which in turn alters their appearance and innate behaviours. Instinctively desirable qualities are those which are age related, mainly youthful or infantile ones, which are linked to our own genetically programmed nurturing and caring instincts.  Hence the strong appeal of cute baby animals with their absence of or reduced aggressive tendencies, uncoordinated early movements, high levels of dependency, curiosity, plus their interest in and ability to learn. They respond to us.  Generally those with pleasing tactile features too, such as soft fur, large round eyes, or chubby cuddly bodies, tend hold more appeal than those without. 

Why do we need pets?

There are many reasons why present day humans keep animals as pets, or form close relationships with them. Normally there is a complex combination of reasons, some obvious, others more subtle and perhaps hidden deep in the psyche. Some reasons are linked to our genetic make-up, family background, and the environment in which we ourselves were raised.

English Bull Terrier

Cuddling dog

Pets can provide us with regular or constant company which is not available from another human. They can be substitute babies, children, parents, partners, siblings or other close relatives.  Even if we live with one or more other humans, animals offer a totally different type of relationship due to their high dependency upon us to meet their welfare needs, and the nature of the bond they form with us, and us with them. For some, a pet provides a reason for someone to get up in the morning, a focus for their attention, a motivator to socialise or exercise, a non-threatening link to communicate with others of our own species, a resource to sustain or promote our own welfare needs (physical or psychological). They may also be an educational and development tool. When we learn to raise and care for another species, we also learn those skills and the responsibility associated with the process which apply in other areas of our life or community.  Simultaneously they link us more closely to our natural environment, thus triggering and enhancing our global awareness.

Welfare Responsibility

Whether you have, or would like to have a companion relationship with an animal, whether it is a guinea pig, tortoise, pony, or the ever popular cat or dog, think about what that really means for both you and the animal.  Then consider how equal the relationship really is. How well do you understand and communicate with each other?  To conclude: If you are providing all, or the majority of your non-human’s social and welfare needs, are you really doing this knowledgeably, competently and effectively?  Perhaps contemplate the questions and answers above, then do some informed research or ‘homework’. Even if we think of ourselves as “experts” we can all learn something new at any point in time, which is a key part of being a good and responsible pet owner.

Companionship – Why Humans Form Relationships with Animals

Companionship is essential for the mental and physical wellbeing of any social species.  But, have you ever wondered WHY humans form relationships with animals?

This association between ‘us’ and other species began in ancient times, when different human societies evolved separately across the globe. 

Researchers and scientists believe man originally realised specific wild animals in the environment provided benefits. Crucially they could alert the humans to danger.  As primitive tribes increasingly shared the same spaces and resources with wild canids – the ancestor of the wolf and dog, humans found that this wolf like animal was useful in several other ways.

Dogs and man in ancient times

Sight hounds helping man hunt

Canids offered protection by defending both species from other threats; they consumed waste products, reducing the risks of attracting other predators and vermin; their hunting skills helped both species find meat; in lean and cold times some weaker or younger animals could readily be killed for food and clothing; they also provided useful  spiritual or religious inspiration. Eventually ancient communities chose to share their homes with other species, not only for the above reasons, but the companionship of individual animals also offered comfort and pleasure.

Ancient Egyptians placed great value on cat and dog companionship.  They even paid to have pets embalmed and mummified and set aside dedicated animal burial grounds. The cat was particularly important to them, originally as a killer of vermin which ate and contaminated their food stores.  Later cats became so revered and respected it was declared a crime to kill one.

Ancient Egyptian canid god

Dogs and canids in Ancient Egypt

Cats were also welcomed into wealthy homes and bred as companions and friends for noblewomen. The Egyptians imbued mystical powers to the species, creating a new goddess called Bastet, half human, half cat, which they worshipped.   Dogs were kept as guards, hunters and companions on journeys, and according to historical records, they became pets too, being given names and belongings. They also feature in religious art and sculptures.

The black canid Anubis was the protector of the dead, with statues placed at tomb entrances. From archaeological digs and ancient manuscripts, Ancient Greeks and Romans obviously felt the same way about  animal companionship, as did native tribes of South America. 

The horse was originally hunted or trapped for food.  At some point tribes people befriended individual animals and soon realised their value for haulage and eventually riding, which opened up a whole new world for man.  Those who took the time to understand this former prey species and build up a respectful, trusting relationship with them, found the rewards of such companionship of great value. Horses have been used for transport, work, war, sport, entertainment, leisure activities, and simply as companion animals. Throughout recorded history there have been several famous human-equine partnerships; many such animals have been honoured and passed into legend. 


Bucephalus: Mount and companion of Alexander the Great

Bucephalus was the favoured mount of Alexander the Great, who founded a city in his honour when the animal died in 326BC. Babieca, the Andalusian owned and ridden for his whole life by El Cid Campeador in 11th Century Spain. He was immortalised when the stallion famously carried his dead master strapped to his saddle, concluding the siege of Valencia. Copenhagen and Merengo were favoured mounts of the Duke of Wellington and Napoleon respectively. Comanche, Seventh Cavalry Horse who outlived his master at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, and although severely wounded was rescued. He lived out his days as a free ranging pet at Fort Riley. Trigger was a palomino bought as a young horse by actor and  singer Roy Rogers. They became a famous movie partnership in the 40’s and 50’s; the duo shared a real-life friendship which endured for 20 years.

Palomino horse

Trigger and Roy Rogers


Look out for my next blog which will look at other companionship roles animals have played – and still do.  This includes those working with us who carry out important jobs. It also looks at pets supporting our physical and mental health. Hopefully it will make you think about the nature of various inter-species relationships.  Perhaps we can even consider how we can achieve a better balance in these partnerships?

Which foods are not safe for dogs and cats?

Are you aware which foods are not safe for dogs and cats? Food is a major part of Christmas and New Year celebrations.  Many are tempted to share their food with pets, or give them special treats.  We also leave edibles on, or under Xmas trees, or within reach during the celebrations.  However, if you have pets in the house, do stop and think first – is there a hazard? If so, take steps to remove the risk of illness or death to your pet.  Animals have a highly sensitive sense of smell but most domestic pets do not possess an innate knowledge of what is bad for them.

Scenting food

Sensitive sense of smell

They are often tempted to eat things which are either harmful or poisonous.  Some owners may not be aware that foods which are fine for humans or some other animals are unsafe for other species. So, do check who can eat what before offering your pets new treats.  Even if an item is safe, if it is a new food offer it in small amounts, occasionally to avoid a digestive upset.  After all, you don’t want to spoil the holiday by nursing a sick companion or running up a huge expense at the vets, do you?

Some foods are known to cause avoidable illness in pets, especially for dogs and cats at this time of year.

Foods NOT safe for pets 

  • Chocolate
  • Alcohol
  • Caffeine, especially from coffee
  • Raisins, currants and grapes
  • Turkey, chicken or duck cooked bones
  • Macadamia nuts + several other types
  • Onions, garlic and any of the alium plant family
  • Blue cheese
  • Corn on the cob
  • Yeast or yeast in dough
  • Milk and many dairy products, e.g. ice cream
  • Some fruits e.g. plums, avocados, cherries, peaches and persimmons
  • Xylitol ingredient (found in many sweets, gums and diabetic foods and dinks)
  • Many spices, e.g. nutmeg and those containing capsaicin e.g. paprika, chilli
  • Some Christmas plants, especially lilies and mistletoe
  • Tobacco
  • Salt (needed in tiny amounts, but too much is harmful, so avoid access to crisps etc)

Some foods listed above may cause vomiting and diarrhoea – unpleasant for the animal and you. Others may cause more serious illnesses or health conditions such as seizures, heart arrhythmia, or pancreatitis. Some are toxic and could be fatal even in small amounts; particularly those in red.  They can cause life threatening conditions such as gastric torsion, or irreparable damage to essential organs like the heart, liver, kidneys, or the central nervous system (brain and nerves).  For more details visit:

Learn which foods are unsafe for dogs, cats and other pets. Check out the dangers. Research the signs of illness caused by unsafe foods or seasonal plants. Risk assess your home during the festivities. Advise children, family and guests NOT to feed human foods directly to pets, nor leave them unattended or within reach.  Be safe, not sorry, so everyone will have a happy holiday season.

Animal Body Language and Behaviours: Pet communication

What is your pet communicating to you, other humans and animals?

Learning about natural behaviours, animal body language and facial expressions is essential for good pet ownership or livestock management.  It helps both parties understand and effectively “talk” to each other.  It crucially enables you pick up early signs of health or welfare issues.  It should also reduce misunderstandings or accidental breaches of trust, thus helping prevent unwanted behaviours.

Brought up in a veterinary environment and living with animals for over 5 decades, I have always had a major interest in studying animal body language and behaviours.  Including us, each species has a range of body language, expressions and natural behaviours that indicate whether they are healthy, their age range, position or status, their breeding or non-breeding state, feelings or emotions, focus of thoughts or concentration e.g. desire for food, drink, shelter, play or fun, exercise or exploration, rest, sleep, recuperation, alone time, companionship, a mate, infant care, protection, or carrying out a task.

Terrier requesting food

Terrier at a cafe whose expression asks hopefully -“Any sausage for me?”

Last but not least, they convey personality traits and characteristics which distinguish them from other individuals.  Such knowledge  provides so many benefits, I can heartily recommend making efforts to discover as much as you can about those of your own animals. 

Two species I probably understand best are dogs and guinea pigs.  I endeavoured to discover what is natural for both in terms of animal body language, behaviours and their ideal environment. I did this through research, close observation, talking to experts, visiting others who share their worlds with one or both species e.g. vets, rescue centres, wildlife parks, reputable kennels, trainers, clubs, and other professionals who endeavour to work with their chosen species on the best, most harmonious and positive terms. 

Animal Body Language and Aggression

It was a Border Collie who taught me the consequences of disobeying a parent regarding safety and animal body language.  I can remember the scene as clearly as if it was last week. When accompanying my dad on a farm visit, aged around 5, the farmer shut his sheepdog in a stable, explaining it feared and disliked small children, having been teased and roughly pulled about and thumped by a little boy when a pup (before he got it). 

Anxious collie dog

Anxious collie

All the dogs I had encountered so far had been friendly and sociable (as were our own), elderly or gentle, or sedated from operations, so I was very keen to make friends with the pretty collie and can distinctly remember thinking all dogs loved me, so if I could make friends with her, this one would too!  Whilst backs were turned examining a sick ewe, because I was not tall enough to look over the half stable door to look at or talk to the dog, I pushed up the latch, opened the door, and ignoring instructions to leave the dog alone, went in.  Picture the dog’s expression and body language: She stood in the rear of the stable, rump to the corner, leaning slightly backwards with forelegs slightly extended and rigid, head lowered but with her muzzle tilted upwards, eyes gleaming and staring fixedly at me, lips and corners of the mouth curled back, ears back and low to the head, hair raised on her ruff, tail curved under her rump.  These are all dog fear-aggression signals.  Either at my tender age I was unable to read these, or I ignored them and tried reassuring the dog by talking to her.  Cornered with this unknown, small feared child blocking her escape route, the dog however, was not reassured at all. I remember taking one or two steps towards her but she suddenly lunged forward with open mouth uttering a couple of short, snappy barks.  As I moved, she bit the thing closest to her face, which was mine!  Hearing her and my surprised yelp, both my dad and farmer were there in an instant and pulled me out before the situation became even more serious.  My top lip had been split in two.  I remember dad telling me not to cry because he would repair it, adding I had badly frightened the dog so she was only trying to protect herself, and I had been told not to go in the stable for my own safety so never to disobey him in future or he would not take me on his rounds ever again.  He cleaned the wound, sewing it up on the spot, whilst I stood snuffling but not crying and feeling mortified. 

Since then I have tried to learn and comprehend what pets and other animals are trying to communicate, how, and why they behave the way they do in any given situation. I know it is important to not only work with their natural behaviours, but for us to treat them with understanding, taking time to build up mutual respect and trust. We should not allow arrogance or ego to affect our own behaviours, and take responsibility for our own actions too!

Relaxed border collie

Happy collie awaiting release command

Did the collie incident make me fearful of dogs?  No, because my dad explained why the collie responded to me with a bite and what she had been communicating by her body language and expressions. He advised my disobedience and actions had provoked the attack so in future to heed warnings. 

How can you gain insight?

There are lots of images illustrating animal body language and behaviours available on the internet.  It could be worth looking these up for your own pet or livestock. You may wish to supplement this by reading some helpful, enlightened, easy to read articles or books based on current scientific studies (not the outdated and discredited alpha theories).  If you need any suggestions, do drop me an email at:  The professional body representing qualified and accredited animal trainers and behaviour therapists is: The Animal Behaviour and Training Council:

Wildlife Gardening to Create Fauna and Flora Havens

Wildlife gardening to create and maintain fauna and flora havens is such a pleasure.  Varied, natural and ‘inhabited’ gardens please the eye. But, did you know that watching and caring for wildlife also helps relieve stress?

Many species are struggling to survive. Intensive farming or sterile built environments replace their normal habitats.  An inhabitant who shares wildlife’s environment at the top of a pyramidal chain, we humans sometimes forget if too many building blocks of that pyramid are lost or destroyed, there is a negative impact on our own long term survival.  Take bees for example.  They pollinate the food plants and trees on which we depend for our own food.  We depend upon each other.

I have been wildlife gardening for at least 3 decades.  Even with tiny plots I have created food and shelter for beneficial insects, reptiles and amphibians, birds, and mammals such as hedgehogs.

wildlife pond

Small pond

A small pond with mini beach at one end, surrounded by pretty marginal plants, suitable safety shelters and protected travel offers a home, breeding area and highway to frogs and toads. Birds drink from and bathe in the shallow areas or catch insects around the pond. Insects themselves often alight on stones or plants for a quick sip of water. 

Piles and tunnels made of logs, moss covered stones, halves of ceramic pots, tiles and pipes, shaded by suitable plants protect wildlife moving round or between gardens. Suitable plants and shrubs complement these to shelter and sustain  various species. Mine includes food plants for me, e.g. thorn-less blackberry, loganberry and rhubarb.  A strip of long grass containing native flowers such as cornflower, ox eye daisy and vetches link different areas of the garden together.  

Shrubs, herbaceous borders, a compost heap, fernery, pond, herb border, fruit plot, and a woodland edge wild flower border all fit into my ‘pocket handkerchief‘ plot.  A small lawn in the centre hosts many small plants as well as different grasses. It is not mown too closely or frequently, so when the clover and daisies flower they add to the diversity. Designed to create varied havens, with feeding, resting and breeding sites, the wildlife friendly garden looks lovely. Adding artificial features will enhance the garden for animals and people. Examples include bird feeders, bug hotels, nesting boxes and bird baths.  

Wildlife gardening for fauna and flora provides colour, interest, pleasure and entertainment throughout the year. It is good for your mental and physical well-being too.  However tiny the outside space, why not do a bit of research? Search local nursery or garden centres or on-line sites for native plants, wild flowers and wildlife features. See what little enhancements YOU can achieve.

Dog Related Legislation – Are You Aware?

Are you confident your knowledge of current dog related legislation is good enough?

Hopefully you knew micro-chipping became law a year ago. This includes the need for all puppies to be chipped by 8 weeks of age, plus owner details must be kept up to date on the chip’s data base. 

Are you aware an ID tag is ALSO a legal requirement for your dog or puppy when it is in a public place? Micro-chipping has not replaced the Control of Dogs Order 1992. Your pet still needs ID on its collar or harness bearing the owner’s name and address. Include a phone number where you can usually be reached too.  Fines can be surprisingly steep if caught without one.

If you have a really obedient dog, is it Ok to walk it off lead on a pavement or country lane?                   NO!  Not unless it is a working dog herding livestock, a police or military dog in action, or an accompanied member of a hunting pack. 

Crate, car harness

Safe car travel for dogs

This piece of dog related legislation is found in the Road Traffic Act 1988. Note that failure to have the dog on a lead on a public highway (which includes pavements and verges) is a criminal offence with a high fine. 

The same act covers two other dog related issues. 1) security measures whilst a dog is in a vehicle (you might invalidate your insurance if the dog is not secure and there is a motor accident).

2) As a driver, your responsibilities if you injure or kill a dog.

You don’t have a dangerous dog, so assume the Dangerous Dogs Act 1991 does not apply to you. Or does it?  Your dog does not have to be off your property to be covered by this rather scary piece of dog related legislation. Quote from RSPCA factsheet:  ‘A dangerously out of control dog can be defined as a dog that has injured someone OR a dog that a person has grounds to reasonably believe that it may injure somebody. Something as simple as your dog chasing, barking at or jumping up at a person or child could result in an investigation, so ensure your dog is under control at all times.’  If you have a puppy, it is so important to socialise it carefully and follow positive training techniques to keep you both safe from an incident or allegation. If you have a ‘reactive’ adult dog, do try to address this by seeking help from a qualified and registered behaviourist. If necessary keep the dog muzzled when out walking too. Breaking this dog law is a criminal offence, with hefty fines.  It could mean a prison sentence or curfew.

Nobody likes to see, let alone have direct contact with dog ‘poo’. If your dog or puppy makes a mess clean it up straight away.  Are you aware of what legislation covers dog fouling? Answer: The Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment Act 2005 and Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014.

If you plan to breed from your dog, or dogs, PLEASE do some thorough research and studying first. Check out the Kennel Club, animal and dog welfare organisations such as the RSPCA, The Dogs Trust, veterinary and other dog professional practices information. Thousands are destroyed each year. Reasons include no longer wanted, medical or behaviour issues.  Some breeders are irresponsible, lack knowledge, or fail to comply with dog relevant legislation. The key piece of dog law here is Breeding and Sale of Dogs (Welfare Act) 1999. The government is reviewing this Act. They want to tighten criteria, reduce unlicensed backstreet breeders, puppy farmers, and the illegal importation of puppies from abroad for sale, aiming to improve welfare, safety, consumer rights and cut stray dog numbers.

There are many other pieces of dog related legislation, such as Dogs (Protection of Livestock) Act 1953. This dog law obliges owners to keep dogs on the lead where livestock are grazing or kept, unless they are engaged in legitimate work under the close control of a handler.  Sheep have a higher level of protection than some other species. Your dog does not actually have to actively chase with intent, injure or kill a sheep to still be guilty of a sheep worrying offence.

Are you aware of the main contents of the key piece of legislation which covers not just dogs, but all animals in the UK? The Animal Welfare Act 2006 is summarised on the following website:

My concluding advice is: Keep within the dog laws! Remember the old saying ‘Ignorance of the law is no excuse’. Many reputable bodies and organisations provide dog law summaries for anyone responsible for caring for dogs of which they should be aware. Read and download one of the guides. Help keep everyone and our pets safe, and law abiding too.   

Smallholding Sitters – Diary of a typical day

Any entry in a smallholding sitters diary would of course depend on the nature and size of the smallholding.  The one below is a composite of several small holdings I look after to illustrate what can be a typical day in the life of a smallholding sitter.

Smallholding sitter’s diary: morning entry

6.45am – 7.30am. Rise, don Crocs, greet and let the dog(s) out for wees.  Greet cats and feed.  Feed returning dogs, refresh water bowls.  Wash empty cat and dog food bowls. Feed my own 2 guinea pigs who accompany me on sits, change water, top up hay. Make a pot of tea. Whilst tea is brewing, quick wash and get dressed. 

7.30am – 8.00am. Drink 2 cups of tea, then let poultry and ducks out.  Feed poultry and fowl.  Refresh water.  Check everyone looks healthy. 


Poultry care

8.00am – whenever finish morning round! Return to house.  Don overalls and wellies.  Head for barn(s) / feed-store.  Measure out pig / sheep / goat / equine / cattle feeds into respective buckets.  Add any extras or medication to relevant buckets, as directed.  Negotiate various gates / hurdles.  Greet and feed farm animals, checking everyone is present and looks healthy.  Collect empty buckets, wash out if required. Roll out hose or collect water buckets.  Return to respective stock and top up or refill any water containers in overnight quarters and any in fields which are not supplied with auto-fill troughs.  Roll up hose if used. Administer any medications or supplements to individuals as required.  Turn out any animals who were shut in at night.  Collect wheelbarrow, hay nets or sacks and take to barn.  Fill with hay/straw as appropriate.  Return to barns, stables, shelters or pens.  Hang hay nets or refill mangers or racks.  Collect dung wheelbarrow and implements.  Push to first stable, barn or shelter.  Muck out.  Empty wheelbarrow onto much heap. Wipe implements. Repeat for each animals’ accommodation. Check poultry and fowl. 


Berkshire piglets

9.30 approx. Return to house. Remove overalls and wellies, have breakfast and third cuppa. Shower if necessary.  Don dog walking kit.  Either walk dog(s) from premises or pop it/them in the car and take for outing, having planned route during breakfast break.  Return between 1 and 2.5 hours later depending upon needs of dog(s), length of walk and location.

12 noon approx.  Do rounds to check stock.  Feed poultry and ducks again if required. Wash out and refresh any fouled water containers or bathing facilities.  Collect eggs, wipe off, record numbers and dates, then store.   Walk round to check big animals look OK. Greet and pet any which want a fuss.  Feed cats again.  Give dog(s) a treat or chew.

Smallholding sitter’s diary: afternoon entry

1.00– 2.00pm approx. Lunch and check emails and phone messages; respond. 

2.00 approx. Brief play or simple basic training session with dog(s).  Do an hour or so of studying, or Assistyg paperwork,  or some chores around the house.

4.00 approx. Take dog(s) for a shorter walk.  Groom if required.  Water any plants in pots, raised beds or poly tunnels  if necessary; pick and store produce if required and as directed.

5.00pm approx. Do round of evening feeds.  Take wheelbarrow and implements to skip fields and shelters as required.  Fill up water troughs or buckets in stables, barns or overnight accommodation if not done in morning.  Refill nets, mangers or racks with hay or straw if contents were eaten during the day.  Call in or round up any animals which have not arrived for supper, fastening any gates behind them as necessary. Greet everyone and check each animal over for changes in behaviour or any injuries or any signs of illness. Administer any medications if required. Shut in anyone who does not spend the night loose with free access to paddock or fields.  Round up any fowl or poultry and shut them up in huts, coops or pens for the night.  Check any electric fencing is live or switch batteries if required. 


Feeding donkey

Smallholding sitter’s diary: evening entry

6.30pm approx. Let dog(s) out if it/they were shut in during stock care activities.  Feed and water.  Feed and water cats.  Clean out, feed and water my own two guinea pigs and provide with fresh hay, groom if required or give a little petting.

7.30pm – Supper.  Check Assistyg emails again, then watch TV, or read, or do some more studying.

9.00 – 10pm.  Take dog(s) out for wees etc.  Check cats have supply of dry food and fresh water to see them through the night.  Do rounds of any stock who are young, elderly, receiving medication or otherwise require pre-bedtime checks.

10.30pm.  Lock up and retire for the night.

Providing Wildlife with Assistance

Providing wildlife with assistance in times of need is the overall aim of Cuan Wildlife Rescue. This small hospital and rehabilitation centre performs a unique, life-saving function. It is based near Much Wenlock, central Shropshire. I had taken orphaned, injured or sick wildlife to its founder, plus supported its work for many years, long before it became a charity and moved to their dedicated site.

Wildlife was sometimes brought in for treatment at the mixed veterinary practice where I grew up. RobinKnowledge, equipment and medical techniques then, were not as advanced as they are now. Sadly as a result successes were correspondingly lower. Childhood memories include the following patients: a rabbit with a broken leg, a badger cub, young fox, bat, numerous hedgehogs, a kestrel with an injured wing, plus various reptiles and amphibians. There was a young deer, but sadly this died of shock soon after arrival.  A robin with a damaged and infected foot had the latter amputated. I named it Biscuit. Upon release it lived for a couple of years in the Practice garden. So tame, it would take caterpillars and grubs gleaned from the vegetable garden directly from my hand.

Whilst working in Wiltshire I joined the local Wildlife Trust and learnt a lot about wildlife. Befriending a local vet who was an avid supporter of their work, together we visited other volunteers who performed the same roles as Cuan on small, individual scales. Eunice cared for badgers; there was also a couple who specialised in looking after birds.


wild young hedgehog

Raised on Beatrix Potter stories, one of my favourite wildlife species was the hedgehog. Moving to Shropshire I discovered this is the home of the British Hedgehog Preservation Society.  Whilst running my own small animal (pet) rescue centre for 15 years I took in a number of hedgehogs. With the aid of information from this charity I successfully cared for and released them. Where expert medical assistance was required, I either sought support from Cuan or the Old Pound vets (now Severn Edge) of whom we were both clients.

Assistyg supporting Cuan Wildlife Rescue

Providing wildlife with assistance is something I still do on a regular basis. This includes providing suitable habitats and feeding stations in my own garden; attending to those in clients’ gardens as part of my sitting duties; picking up casualties encountered during sits or on my travels; providing first aid and taking them to Cuan; and providing wildlife with assistance indirectly through donations or collections.  If you are interested in helping around 2,500 wild creatures in need annually, please visit Cuan’s website to donate money or items . Alternatively if I am doing a sit for you and you have some items from their ‘wish list’ I might be able to drop them off for you on my next visit.

Pet Exercising and Stimulation

When you read this blog title ‘Pet Exercising and Stimulation’ did your mind produce an image of a dog?  However, providing fundamental needs for ANY pet’s welfare include exercise and stimulation. Both are essential for physical and mental wellbeing.  We need them too, don’t we?  We share basic requirements with members of the animal kingdom.  They include: appropriate dry, clean accommodation, access to fresh clean water, suitable food, an ability to carry out normal behaviours including exercise and stimulation (which generate the mood-stabilizing neurotransmitter, serotonin), access to medical care to prevent suffering, and (excluding certain species), companionship.


Dogs are sociable, reputed to be as intelligent as the average 2 year old human child. In natural situations, just like us, they meet up with friends at different times for various purposes.  This may be for exercise, communication exchanges, to explore the environment, look for food, search for a mate, identify suitable resting places, or just ‘hang out’ with pals for a while. Therefore, to enable them to exhibit normal behaviours as far as practicable (& within legal constraints), owners or carers must provide them with environments and opportunities to exercise, socialise and utilise their brains.  Of course this does NOT mean turning a dog out onto the street to do his or her own thing!  It is essential for pups to be carefully socialised (from 6 weeks) to ensure they become well balanced, confident and sociable adults.  Pet exercising periods should be supervised and appropriate for the age, breed and condition of the dog. The Kennel Club, RSPCA and vets can offer guidelines. Exercise should be in a secure, relatively safe area such as fenced garden, paddock, dog-friendly park, out on a lead, or under ‘close control’.  Vary their walks and outings, as well as including regular favourite routes and venues. If they live in a solo dog household, offer opportunities for them to periodically socialise with other amenable dogs under supervision.

Other Pets

Other pets including equines, cats, rabbits, guinea pigs, degus, fancy rats, gerbils, hamsters, birds and reptiles all need an enriched environment. This must be of a suitable size for exercising, to graze or hunt for some of their food, explore, run, play, and carry out as much natural behaviour as practicable (excluding ones such as indiscriminate breeding, fighting, having free access to toxic substances or other serious hazards they would encounter in the wild!).  Being creative, and sharing (or observing) some of these activities is fun!

Happy, healthy, comfortable and confident pets enjoying their lives, environment, food and company to the full is one of the biggest joys of being a pet owner or pet carer / sitter.  Gaining pleasure from doing our very best to meet our pets needs is also beneficial to our health; a win-win situation all round.

Pet Sitter Scare Involving A Cat Rescue

In addition to the bull incident, another pet sitter scare was rather memorable.  The culprit was a cat. She belongs to valued clients who keep rare breeds. The cats live a luxurious life befitting their special status.  Devoted cat lovers, the couple view their felines to be their most valuable possessions. The cats share a lovely large barn conversion with their 2 adoring humans, possess every cat toy imaginable, numerous beds and litter trays, the best food and treats on the market, attention, cuddles and playtimes on demand, plus veterinary attention at the faintest sign of illness.  The cats are in peak condition, very playful and affectionate. They are a real pleasure for a pet sitter to look after.

Faye, the oldest, favourite cat appeared for breakfast as usual, used her litter tray, played with some toys, then settled for a nap in the garden room.  I went outside to do some gardening. Returning to the house midday I was met with requests for fresh food, treats and playtimes.  Faye was absent. A quick search did not reveal her current hiding place.  I spent a couple of hours playing with the cats in between household chores.  Time for the next meal arrived, but still no Faye.  Odd. She usually came when called.  A really thorough search proved fruitless. I even checked inside drawers and the laundry box in case she had crept in unnoticed (she is very tiny and slender).  Nothing! 

At this point I started to tingle all over and broke into a sweat, fearful I had let Faye slip past me when I went outside. So tiny with the colouring of a wild rabbit, any predator would have had her in a trice. Alternatively she could have just run and hidden in the grounds or adjacent woodlands, never, ever to be found. I spent 2 hours until dusk calling and searching the grounds, woods and fields.  Supper time passed, but still no Faye. My anxiety levels reached panic pitch. A sleepless night lay ahead of me.


Cat Rescue

At bedtime one of the other cats ran upstairs ahead of me.  Instead of following me into the bathroom, she paused on the gallery overlooking the lounge, jumped onto the laundry box and stared up into the barn rafters.  Following her gaze, I saw a silent, huddled cat-shaped body perched high up on a main cross beam. Faye – alive and well, but equally as scared as I had been. 

Pet sitter to the rescue! It took me an hour. I covered the lounge floor with bed mattresses, settee bases, cushions and pillows in case of a fall (hers or mine), fetched an extending ladder from the garage, then performed a ‘fireman’s’ lift to safety. The owners, bless them, were both amused and grateful.  Apparently a similar scare had befallen them soon after they moved in!

To discuss your needs contact me on 07969 802258 or click the button to email
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